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Walking through the “園林/YuanLin”,  one notices here and there the inclusion of “盆景/BonKei” and “太湖石/Taihu stones." While these are small separate worlds placed within the “園林/YuanLin”, the garden itself serves as a condensed depiction of real scenes or imagined paradises. In this regard, it is no different from the similarly condensed small separate worlds.


This structure is not only found in gardens but also in paintings such as those depicting the landscapes of the Northern Song Dynasty or mandalas, as well as in architectural structures like courtyard houses or earthen buildings, and in stories such as "Dream of the Red Chamber," where the notion of a condensed small separate world, akin to a nested paradise, is often expressed.


Drawing from this nested structure, a contemporary utopia is portrayed by combining elements of the fictional "tropical" and characters as analogies for landscapes, echoing the concept of a modern utopia.

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